Bees for Development
Bees have a very close relationship with the wider environment. It is not adequate to consider only the bee hive or the apiary, we must understand how the bees relate and interact with the whole environment, where they are living and feeding.
Bees thrive in an environment which;
Pests and predators occur in most natural environments, but where these are indigenous, bees have become adapted to living with them and have developed survival mechanisms. Introduced pests and diseases present greater difficulties.
Bees are affected by the seasons and the weather. In temperate climates bees become inactive during the cold winter and remain within their nest feeding on stored honey. The period of inactivity may last for five months. In tropical climates periods of inactivity due to cold weather are usually shorter. Bees living in their natural environments are adapted to the local conditions. In the tropics flowers may be available for longer periods and at two or three different periods throughout the year. This means the bees can be active for longer, which may mean they produce more honey. However, they also swarm and migrate very frequently as the conditions are favourable for doing so, unlike in temperate regions where swarming is more high risk. For example, in Europe, a swarm which leaves the nest at the end of the summer may not have enough time or food to build up stores for winter before the cold sets in.
List of Articles available on this topic (17):
An Introduction to the vegetation of Yemen: ecological basis, floristic composition, human influence
Al-Hubaishi, A. & Muller-Hohenstein, K.
Applied ecology of bumblebees
Atlas of Earthcare: A Major New Illustrated Guide to Looking After our Planet
Beekeeping and conserving biodiversity of honeybees
Lodesani, M. & Costa, C.
Beekeeping and Social Forestry
Beekeeping for income generation and coastal forest conservation in Tanzania
Lalika, M.C.S. & Machangu, J.S.
Beekeeping in Rural Development: Unexploited Beekeeping Potential in the Tropics: with particular reference to the Commonwealth
Beekeeping, poverty alleviation and forestry conservation in Imadiala, Madagascar
Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Approach in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries: Proceedings
Center for International Forestry Research: Strategic Planning Thematic Papers: Issues Contributing to Program Development
Improved pollination of insect pollinated crops in Bhutan
keep Bees without Fuss or Chemicals
Restoration of Apis cerana japonica on the Goto Islands
Seeds for Beekeepers, Conservationists and Gardners
Sustainable bee-friendly beekeeping: part 1
The use and abuse of introducing honey plants
Eisikowitch D; Dafni A
Viruses of the honey bee: Part 1
Thompson,C.; Budge,G.; Biesmeijer,J.