Bees for Development
Bees can suffer from diseases, pests or other problems that can either kill them or make them unproductive. This subject section will concentrate on the problems, pests, parasites, predators and diseases of the two main hive bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. These honey bees have been widely researched, their diseases and difficulties are best known and they are of significant economic importance. These honey bees can be kept as managed species by people for financial benefit because they live in predictable, long term colonies while the value of their pollination services for natural systems and agricultural and other crops often has an even greater value than the honey the bees produce.
Animals can only be productive when they are healthy and in good condition so it is important for beekeepers to be able to recognise the various threats to bees and to know how to overcome different problems if they are to collect a good crop of honey.
Bee diseases have been around as long as the bees themselves.A bee colony has many features which make it an ideal place for bacteria and fungi to breed. There are many thousands of individuals crowded together and the centre of the honey bee's nest is kept at a warm, constant temperature even when outside temperatures are very high or low, while the practice of food sharing that helps the bees to communicate, can also, quickly spread infection. It is a tribute to the sophistication of the honey bees' behavioural, immune and chemical systems that they are sick so rarely.
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As well as diseases, other pests and predators affect the survival of bees and the practices of beekeepers should prevent predation and invasion of the hives by pests. Beekeepers can also aid the welfare of the bees with observant husbandry, vigorous queens and plenty of forage. Also helpful in disease control is planning apiary layouts to minimise robbing and drifting bees as well as selecting strains of bees less susceptible to disease.
Diseases and pests are not the only problem that bees face. Habitat loss, cultural change and pollution are all serious threats to the survival of all types of bees.
List of Articles available on this topic (84):
A Preliminary Investigation on the Overwintering of Small Mites (tropilaelaps clareae)
Wang J, Wei-Hua Zhang, Min Hong, Shao-Ting Yang, Zhe-Hong Wu
A radical solution; Varroa damage
A Report on the Discovery of Malpighamoeba mellificae in the Chinese Bee Apis cerana cerana, and its Prevention and Cure
Wang J D, and 4 others
A Study on
Wang J D, Zhang W H, Ren G K, Lin D,
A World Without Bees
Benjamin, A. McCallum, B.
Abstract Proceedings: 11th Asian Apicultural Association Conference, ApiExpo & Workshop
Asian Apicultural Assocaition
Acaride (pyrethroid) Resistance in Varroa Destructor
American Foul Brood: Part 2
American foulbrood in sub-saharan Africa
An Evaluation of ARS Russian Honey Bees in Combination with Other Methods for the Control of Varroa Mites
Rinderer, T.E., De Guzman, L.I., Delatte, G.T. and Harper, C.
Anatomy of the Honey Bee
Snodgrass, R E
Bee death in the USA: is the honey bee in danger?
Bee Death in the USA: is the honey bee in danger?
Bee disease- impending threat and challenge to Indian beekeeping
Chhuneja, P.K., Garcha, S. and Gatoria, G.S.
Bee Health: the Revitalizing Power of Propolis, Royal Jelly and Pollen
Beekeeping issues: Varroa control
Beekeeping issues: Varroa control: thresholds for treatment
Bees for Wealth and Health: Wambui finds out
Bees in the City
Benjamin A. & McCallum B.
Bees rising from the ashes?
Bienen gesund Erhalten: Krankheiten vorbeugen, erkennen und behandeln
Chalk Brood in Ethiopia
Colony Collapse Disorder
Comment controler la loque americaine sans antibiotique
Van Eaton, Cliff
Comparison of two thymol-based Acaricides, API LIFE VAR and Apiguard, for the control of Varroa mite
Melathopoulos, A.P., Gates, J.
Control of Varroa destructor
Controlling American foul brood without antibiotics
Deformed wing virus in bees and Varroa destructor
Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence
Alaux, C., Ducloz, F., Crauser, D. and Le Conte, Y.
Diseases of Bees: their Signs, Causes and Treatment
Betts, Annie D
Diseases of Honeybees: sub regional training seminar
World Organisation for Animal Health OiE
Food grade mineral oil (FGMO) as an alternative treatment for honey bee mites
Fungal Varroa control?
Having Healthy Bees: An Integrated Approach
Hazards of pesticides to bees
Belzunces, L.P., Pelissier, C. & Lewis, G.B.
Health and the Honeybee
Honey Bee - Brood Diseases
Honey bee biology: Adjusting to Varroa mites
Honey bee biology: experiementing with integrated pest managment for Varroa control
Honey bee biology: Varroa mites: some historical perspectives
Honey Bee Pests, Predators and Diseases
Morse, R ed
Honeybee Diseases and Pests
Honeybee Pests, Predators, and Diseases
Morse, R.A. & Nowogrodzki
Imported Russian honey bees: quarantine and initial selection for Varroa resistance
Harris, J., Rinderer, T., Kuznetsov, V., Danka, R., Delatte, G. and de Guzman, L.
Incarceration of small hive beetles
Integrated pest management combined with mite resistant queens to combat Acaride-resistant varroa
Noel, B., Amarin, J. and Kovacs, A.
Integrated pest management in beekeeping
Is there a pot of honey at the end of the rainbow? An iridescent virus linked to colony collapse disorder
Kashmir bee virus in British Columbia
keep Bees without Fuss or Chemicals
Keeping Bees & Making Honey
Benjamin, A. & McCallum, B.
La Varroase Des Abeilles mellieres - Varroasis of the Honey Bee
Living with resistant mites - part II
Manual de Apicultura para Ambientes Subtropicales: Una Propuesta de: \'La Red de Escuelas del Noroeste Argentina (NOA)\'
Dini, C. & Bedascarrasbure, E.
Mexican beekeeping seminar, part II
Mite control products affect honey bee queens
More about food grade mineral oil (FGMO) for mite control
Natural antibiotic found in honey
Bradbear, N., Martin, P. & Wainwright, D.
Natural Beekeeping with the Warre Hive
Natural Plant Products as Pesticides
Berger, A. & Mugoya, C.F.
Nature Wars. People vs Pests
New Varroa control product to be launched in the United Kingdom
Oxalic acid treatment by trickling against Varroa destructor: recommendations for use in central Europe and under tremperate for honey bee mites
Charriere, J.D., Imdorf, A.
Parasites of the honeybee
Plant with toxic nectar kills native honey bees in SW China
Liu, F.L. and Fu, W.J.
Practical Manual on Beekeeping
Gupta, JK; Sharma, HK; Thakur, RK.
Queen of the Sun: What are the Bees Telling Us?
Siegel, T. & Betz, J.
Queen trapping - a bio-technical method of Varroa control
Resistance of Varroa destructor to Wang\'s flumethrin and Wang\'s fluvalinate in the Middle East
Reza Shahrouzi, Amir Mohammad Elmi, Abbas Gerami Sadeghian
Silent Spring in Northern Europe?
The BBKA Guide to Beekeeping
Davis, I. & Cullum-Kenyon, R.
The honey guide and the badger
The National Bee Keeping Training and Extension Manual
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry & Fisheries
The Robber Flies and Bee-killers of China (Diptera : Asilidae)
Brimley, S. W.
The spread and control of American Foulbrood
Hansen, H. & Brodsgaard, C.J.
Thymol versus pyrethroids
Training in Malta
Use of sucrose octanoate esters to control the parasitic honey bee mite Varroa destructor
Sheppard, W.S., Gardner, M., Hasher, S., Kahkonan, B., Meixner, M.D. and Strange, J.P.
Using oxalic acid
Varroa control with fungal pathogens
Varroa control: Thymol over-frame evaporator for treating varroa
Varroa in New Zealand: South Island update
Why the bees are dying
Workshop on medicines for bees - report of meeting December 2009
European Medicines Agency