Bees for Development
Beeswax foundation is a sheet of beeswax with a pattern of honey comb cells embossed on it. These sheets sometimes have wires running through them to give them extra strength. They are used in frame-hive beekeeping. Each new frame placed in the bee hive will be made up with a sheet of foundation and this gives the bees a base from which to start building, as they begin to draw out the full comb.
Click here for more information about frame hive beekeeping.
The foundation produced in temperate climates is for temperate bees. Temperate Apis mellifera are about 10% large than tropical Apis mellifera. Consequently the foundation and foundation presses that are available are all geared for the worker size of the temperate bee. If these large foundation sizes are used for tropical bees they will build a good deal of drone brood in the larger cells and use a great deal of energy breaking down the wax to rebuild the comb into the correct sizes. Beeswax foundation can be purchased from beekeeping suppliers or can be made by beekeepers themselves.
Feeding is necessary if there is not enough forage available for the bees. Many beekeepers in cold climates feed their bees when there are periods of bad weather or as bees begin to build up after the winter. Feeding bees is expensive and if there is adequate forage, it is not necessary. However, if feeding is ever undertaken it should always be done from within the hive to prevent uncontrollable robbing and damage being done to other colonies in the area. Robbing bees will target smaller weaker colonies and take all their honey stores so poor feeding practise has the potential to cause chaos among the bees as well as giving the opportunity to spread disease around.
List of Articles available on this topic (14):
Agricultural Pesticide Sprayers 1: FAO Guidelines on Equipment Quality Control and Use
Beekeeping in a Nutshell: The Beekeepers Toolbox: What you need and how to use it
Development and evaluation of an electrically heated knife for uncapping honey combs
Bhinder, J.S., Chhunaje, P.K., Kaur, G.J.
DVD Review, smokers, their maintenance and use
Haiti Beekeeping Mission
Hive Products/Solitary Bees/Solar Wax extraction
Angie Twydall/David Baldock/Dr Chris Coulson
Microscope - A Beginner\'s Guide, The
Hartley, W G
Microscopy for Beekeepers - Beekeeping in a nutshell number 69
Microscopy on a Shoestring
Observation hives: how to set up, maintain and use a window to the world of honey bees
Webster,T & Caron,D
Setting-up the Microscope
White, G W
Smokers: their Maintenance & Use
The JZ1 Frame-wire Embedder of Honeycomb Foundation with Multipurpose Electrical Time
Zambian Beekeeping Handbook
Clauss, B. & Clauss, R.