It is commonly assumed that intensification of agriculture is the key to increasing profits. This is not always true. Let us consider the example of fish farming. As the density of fish in a pond is increased, the wastes increase, the oxygen levels fall, and the natural assimilative capacity of the pond cannot maintain the water quality. In a traditional, low density system the pond\'s natural biological productivity (algae, higher plants, zooplankton and bacteria) serve as biological filters that convert the wastes through natural biological processes. Intensive systems do enable large yields, but additional energy inputs in the form of labour, water exchange, aeration and feeds are all required to sustain these systems. There is a point where the incremental returns are not worth the additional inputs and risks, and \'Increasing the intensity of the system does not necessarily reflect an increase in profitability\'(1).
In this article we argue that where natural environments can provide everything that honey bees require, extensive beekeeping is more profitable than intensive beekeeping. It will be more sustainable, more resilient and less risky. The resilience of an ecosystem is its capacity to return to its pre-condition state following a disturbance, including maintaining its essential characteristics, taxonomic composition, structures, ecosystem functions, and process rates\'(2). In this era of climate change and the globalisation of honey bee pests and diseases, resilience is a great benefit of extensive beekeeping.
How are extensive and intensive beekeeping different? There are many approaches to beekeeping: the least intensive methods differ little from how bees live in nature, while in the most intensive, many honey bee colonies are maintained in a single apiary, feeding and the application of medicines are the norm, queens are selected, bred and replaced annually, and bees are manipulated in various ways.
In this article we are considering the extensive beekeeping systems employed by the beekeepers living and working in the savannah woodlands of Central and East Africa (3 4 5 6). The beekeepers disperse hundreds of locally-made hives in trees, wait for some of them to be naturally occupied by honey bee colonies, and subsequently harvest honeycombs (from which honey and beeswax are obtained) by breaking ripe honeycombs from those hives in which honey bees have established colonies. One accusation often levelled at this type of beekeeping is that colonies are killed during harvesting. This does happen, but not always. Even if it does, we argue that where honey bees and their habitats are still abundant, the wider population of honey bees is not harmed significantly. However we believe that it is now essential for beekeepers everywhere to always endeavour to harvest honey without harm to bees: careful harvesting of high quality honey and beeswax without harm to bees is of paramount importance.
Extensive and intensive beekeeping can be compared on a number of levels. Here we consider profitability and sustainability - where sustainability is the ability to endure and provide resources for future generations.
Every beekeeping system requires bee hives, labour for placing hives and harvesting, equipment for harvesting honey and beeswax, and buckets for storage. Intensive beekeepers will spend time and money also on management, manipulation, protection, feeding and queen rearing, whereas an extensive beekeeper spends little on these activities.
Considering the honey bee population as a whole
A conventional cost-benefit analysis can be applied to both systems but it is essential that the extensive system takes a population approach to the analysis and does not base calculations on a single colony: this consideration of the honey bee population, as opposed to a single honey bee colony lies at the heart of extensive beekeeping.
A honey bee colony is one family of bees consisting of one queen, thousands of female worker bees, and a number (depending on the season) of male drone bees. One honey bee colony lives in one hive.
A honey bee population is the entire population of honey bees in any area, made of tens, hundreds or thousands of honey bee colonies.
For extensive beekeepers, their production resource is the entire, local, wild, honey bee population living in their hives - and in those of their neighbours. Distinction between the wild population of honey bees, and beekeepers\' bees, is a false one.
To tell an extensive beekeeper that their yield per colony is lower than that of an intensive beekeeper is an irrelevance.
Intensive beekeepers will count their unit of production as one, single colony - for example the National Agricultural Research Institute in Argentina worked out that each colony must produce at least 27 kg per year to give the beekeeper a profit(7).
The extensive beekeeper is utilising the whole honey bee population - or at least the part of the population that happens to be living in their hives at any one time. The extensive beekeepers\' cost-benefit analysis will consider all their input costs and their income from the total volume of honey and beeswax sold. Harvesting from large numbers of hives involves considerable time and effort, and extensive beekeepers make their own judgements about likely returns from their labour. However, changing to a more intensive system incurs far greater costs (and other considerations) and may not be worthwhile.
Sustainability and healthy honey bee populations
There is much more to extensive beekeeping than just a positive cost-benefit analysis in the right environment. Other assets in every beekeeping system include the bees, their genetic characteristics, the means of population increase, and bee health. It is when considering these assets that we learn more about what \'taking a population approach\' means and the sustainability of the system can be fully understood. Bee health is probably the biggest gain of the extensive system. Medication and control of honey bee health are nowadays major costs in intensive systems.
In an extensive system, the population increases through natural swarming. For this to work best, some colonies must be left undisturbed (unharvested) as mother colonies. This may require a deliberate decision on the part of the beekeeper, alternatively these mother colonies may be simply wild \'un-owned\' colonies. Achieving increase through swarming is not only free but has many health implications too(8). The strongest queens are selected naturally, while very weak colonies will not reach sufficient size for fission by swarming to take place and will therefore not be reproduced. Repeated building of new nests (whether necessitated through swarming, absconding or migration of honey bee colonies) works against the persistence of pathogens and, for example, where Varroa is present, the brood-free period caused by swarming breaks the Varroa population\'s growth cycle too. There is increasing evidence to show that the \'survival of the fittest\' approach leads to Varroa tolerance(9).
By contrast, intensive beekeepers work to prevent swarming, instead using hive technologies to encourage bees to invest in honey production rather than reproduction. The honey bee ecologist Professor Tom Seeley of Cornell University describes that this approach undermines genetic fitness, explaining that \"... the tendency of honey bee colonies in beekeepers\' hives to refrain from colony reproduction and instead to stockpile several times as much honey as they need for winter survival. This shunting of resources into storage and away from reproduction benefits beekeepers,... but hurts the bees, whose genetical fitness would be greater if they concentrated more on reproduction and less on honey storage\"(10).
Intensive beekeepers rely on the natural ability of their bees and the process of natural selection to remain healthy. They do not use medicines, they have no management control - so cannot check for diseases. They do not prop up ailing colonies. If a colony succumbs to an illness or weakness then an extensive beekeeper is likely to just let this happen. The outcome is survival of the fittest. This approach to bee health is free in terms of financial outlay. Some might argue that this is possible only where the bee population is relatively free from pests and diseases. However, we suggest that the coincidence of extensive beekeeping and healthy bees is not an accident of good fortune. In an in-depth analysis of the status of African honey bees one study concluded that the health and resilience of indigenous honey bees on the continent could be attributed to \"beekeeping management (small versus large-scale), absence of breeding, high genetic diversity and .... less stress that allows honey bees to defend themselves against parasites and diseases\"(11). The extensive approach also supports bee health in the following ways:
• The bee health benefits of swarming already mentioned above.
One quickly appreciates that extensive beekeeping is most viable where natural environments have not been degraded and population pressures (of the human kind) are not excessive. However, it must be noted that the extensive beekeepers of the savannah woodlands of Africa do not practice extensive beekeeping because somehow they are \'lucky\'; the beekeeping systems they use serve to protect and maintain the resilience and health of honey bee populations.
To summarise, an extensive system is cost effective because nature provides many of the elements of the sustainable beekeeping system at no financial cost to the beekeeper. Like the fish system described above, a traditional, low density, extensive system is profitable because the costs are low, and much of the income is profit. Where this is the case - in many parts of Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique Tanzania and Zambia, the existing traditional beekeeping systems (that are extensive systems) are highly sustainable, resilient and profitable.
The unique, resilient and sustainable characteristics of extensive beekeeping need to be more widely appreciated and understood, while the beekeepers who maintain these systems need to be encouraged in their work, and not constantly exhorted to \'modernise\'. Truly modern beekeeping must be resilient, sustainable and financially viable: three characteristics of extensive beekeeping.
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9. MANRIQUEZ,A. (2010). France a Varroa challenge. ApiNews. 02 November 2010.
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11DIETEMANN,V.; PIRK,C.W.W.; CREWE,R. (2008). Is there a need for conservation of honeybees in Africa? Apidologie: 40 (3).
12 BEES FOR DEVELOPMENT (2010). Organic beekeeping - a discussion (contribution from Ulrich Broker). Bees for Development Journal 96.