In Burma the native host of Varroa jocobsoni is Apis cerana, and that of Tropilaelaps clarae is A. dorsata. Both mites were also found in all mature A. mellifera colonies examined. A treatment programme for 21 A. mellifera colonies involved: confinement of the queen in a cage for 21 days: uncapping of dead brood; feeding with sugar syrup (which stimulated hive cleaning); funigation with phenothiazine. Six colonies which suffered queen failure during the following 7 months were lost, but in the other 15 colonies the populations of both mites were reduced. After release the queens began to lay rapidly, and all 15 colonies increased and produced surplus honey (average 35kg). The best time to carry out such and annual treatment is when brood rearing is at its lowest level.