By Vincent Mulder1, Valentinus Heri2 and Trevor Wickham3
1Committee Science & Technology for Vietnam, Wageningen, Netherlands; 2Yayasan Dian Tama, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia; 3Eco-planning & Associates, Canada
The Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP) in Kalimantan, Indonesia includes around 132,000 ha of lakes, seasonally submerged forests and rainforest. The Park has 6,500 inhabitants living in 39 permanent or seasonal villages. The majority of the population are Melayu, whose main activity is fishing. They live in floating houses in villages built on stilts. Besides Melayu, around 10% of the population consists of Dayak groups, mainly Iban, who live at somewhat higher sites, mostly with several families living together in longhouses. Their activities besides fishing include collecting and selling forest products, hunting and agriculture.
With 3,600 mm rainfall per year the lakes are almost continuously filled with fresh water flowing into the Kapuas River. The water retreats only during a short period from July to September, causing some lakes to completely dry out. This seasonality has great consequences for the vegetation. As a result most of the forests in the area are low stunted forests, flooded for most of the year. In the dry season there is a great danger of forest fires, as relatively dense canopies dry out, and dried fallen leaves and wood act as a fuel layer on the soil.
The end of the dry season is followed by a rise in water level, which leads to bud induction and a massive blooming from December to February. This period of flower abundance is vital to the honeybee colonies. Due to the absence of a dry season in 1995 there was almost no honey harvest in early 1996 with the same phenomenon happening in 1969 and 1970.
Nests of Apis dorsata the giant honeybee have traditionally been exploited to produce large volumes of honey and wax for trade. Usually when Apis dorsata nests are hunted, the bees are chased away with smoke, and the comb is completely cut away for collection. Traditional honey hunters are well known in many areas of Asia where they climb steep cliffs, or ascend tall bee trees using hand-made ladders and local tools1.
In 1989 the existence of managed honey and wax collection from this bee was confirmed to be still a common practice among beekeepers in U Minh, Southern Vietnam2. References and early notes confirmed that a special system, referred to as rafter beekeeping, had existed for more than a hundred years.
An old Dutch reference from 1851 on an expedition to Kalimantan reported the existence of a similar management system for honeybees, locally called tikung beekeeping, which was later described in more detail3,4. As in U Minh, the bee management system described for Kalimantan occurred in an area of submerged forest, with a lack of tall trees (or rock faces) on which bees could build their nests.
This report is the result of a study visit to the upper Kapuas Lake Region, which surprisingly revealed the tikung system to be still popularly practised by a relatively large group of the local population. Much use was made of recent studies by project staff of the DFID Danau Sentarum Conservation Project active since 19925. This Park was gazetted as a wildlife reserve in 1982, and subsequently as a National Park in 1999, with a total area of 132,000 ha. Several studies have described the local honey and wax business6,7 on which a Community Based Income Generating Programme was designed.8,10
The Danau Sentarum flooded forest contains a variety of tree species. According to the honey collectors around 20 species are important for honey production. Tembesu (Fagrea fragrans) is most important as it is used for making the tikung or honey planks. At present beekeepers recognise the following important nectar source trees: masung (Syzygium claviflora), tahun (Carallia bracteata), tengelam (Syzygium sp), putat (Barringtonia acutangula), kawi (Shorea balangeran), pecaras or bakras (Homalium caryophyllaceum), samak (Syzygium sp) ubah (Syzygium ducifolium) and lebang (Vitex pinnata). The most popular are honeys from masung and tahun.
Superior honey is said to be produced from nectar of the ransa palm (Eugeissona ambigua) but this plant is very rare nowadays. The palm was heavily exploited in times of famine for its starch content. Honeys from putat, kawi and timba tawang (Crudia teysmannia) are known for their bitter taste and are therefore less favoured.
Tembesu wood and rattan (for example Calamus schizoacanthus) are among the most exploited products in the Park. However, timber and rattan exploitation account for only 7% of the total overall income of the population. By far the largest portion of income for the Melayu (89%) is generated from fish resources. Honey production, though variable from year to year, contributes roughly 1%.8
HONEY HUNTING PRACTICE
In this article we deal only with Apis dorsata (mwonji) that produces almost all of the honey in the area. However Apis florea/andreniformis (mwonji lalat) is present in the area and is occasionally hunted. Apis cerana (nyerungan) is rare for the lake region, but is found in tree cavities in the higher rainforest surrounding the Park. Also stingless bees (engke lulut) are known to produce small amounts of honey.
Although the tikung system is the most typical honey production method practised in the Park, honey hunting from tall bee trees is also popular in this region.
This technique is locally called lalau in Melayu language, or tapang, which is Iban language for bee tree. Tree species that bees occupy in this area are predominantly: rengas Gluta renghas; tempurau Dipterocarpus gracilis; ran Dipterocarpus tempehes; menungau Vatica cf umbronata. In a narrower sense, tapang refers to Koompassia species, of which Koompassia malaccensis occurs in the lowland forests around the Park. On elevated land and riverbanks adjacent to the lake area these tall trees often stand alone, due to clearing for agriculture on the levees. This marks the fact that these lalau or tapang are respected trees due to ownership, religious beliefs or simply economic value. Between 10-50 and often up to 200 Apis dorsata nests can be seen hanging from the thicker branches at 15-30 m high, forming a wide canopy. Although the bee colonies seasonally migrate to settle on the lalau tree, some trees have nests all year round. Others show only abandoned combs during part of the year. Swarms settle from December to February and are said to come from the hills or rocky mountains that can be seen at a distance surrounding the lakes. A second arrival of bees is said to occur each year from July until October. Honey is harvested on moonless nights in February. Starting in January some colonies from these lalau trees are said to move to the tikung area - the dwarf or stunted forests in the lakes.
Although local customary laws protect lalau trees their number is decreasing. In Meliau six people own 22 lalau trees. Ten years ago there were 30 trees: eight have been felled by storms and/or lightning.
Incidental cutting of bee trees is reported. In 1960, 183 lalau trees were cut by their Iban owners near Semalah village because of shifting cultivation. At present only six trees remain.
Due to clearance of the forest on the riverbanks no trees are available to the bees, as no new lalau have been planted. In primary forest sites young lalau trees are recognised by the people and protected as such.
Ownership of a lalau tree is maintained for a lifetime and can be inherited. Customary laws define ownership of lalau trees, which has to be recognised by the local leadership. If accepted, the whole community is informed and no ownership marks are made on the trees. Determining the right time for harvest is important, and once it is decided, the village head communicates this to all lalau owners and families that have the right to share part of the harvest. In the past, in the Kapuas River Delta this communication sometimes required several nights travel for the messenger who would carry a piece of knotted rattan, indicating the number of days remaining until the night of harvest9.
Harvest is done at or around the new moon. In most cases a group of local shamans - specialised bee hunters - gather for this activity. A few days before the harvest they start making a ladder along the trunk of the bee tree up to the branches. Wooden pegs 30 cm long made of bamboo are hammered into the tree trunk at a distance of 1.5-2 m. A long pole is attached to the end of each peg by rattan. When the ladder is finished, the harvest can commence. Usually around 1900 hours one or two honey hunters ascend the ladder, with a smouldering torch made of dried roots of jabai (Ficus microcarpa), a wooden knife and a basket attached to the hunter\'s waist by a long piece of rope.
The hunters sing songs at various stages of the harvest. There appears to be a basic text formula, which is sung in five stages: (1) finishing the ladder; (2) clearing the bees from the nest; (3) cutting the comb; (4) hoisting the basket; and (5) descending the ladder. The songs are passed from fathers to sons, and are sung to the spirits of the trees to make them friendly. We recorded one such song by a Melayu honey hunter from Semalah, Mr Abdullah Sani.
The songs are humorous, and tease the crowd below, who respond with a whooping yell. Often honey is mentioned in reference to a women or young girl\'s beauty and their sexual attractiveness. Local and regional politics can also receive mention in the spontaneous lyrics of the creative singers/honey hunters.
Tempukung sekuta bangan
Oh nemiak belahar nyumpit
Pakau ku tuntung Tapang dan
Udah ku anjak enda begerak
Udah ku init enda beretit
Paya lucak ulu Tempunak
Ningkam di dalam ulu Sekayam
Bukan emas sembarang emas
Emas pelinggang se dari Jawa
Bukan tepas sembareng tepas
Serdap di diam si jaga Rengas
Tetak kayu si tetak kayu
Tetak kayu secapit Ubah
Anang nuan seisi\' madu
Pecit susu dara di rumah
Ngiang-ngiang akar genali
Unjung di rumpu\' setabah tabah
Jaga nuan ini\' Sengiang Tali
Kami ngulur lingang bunga lingang Kebaca
Perang alu, perang kelelap
Perang di lengkong si kayu Ara
Pulang ayu, pulang semengat
Pulang semua kita berdua
THE LADDER IS READY
There are nests of ants in the jungle.
Children learn to shoot the Sumpit (blow darts).
I have already made the Pakau (ladder steps) on the Tapang tree.
I climbed, but the ladder didn\'t move.
Mud in the upper Tempunak river.
And in the upper Sekayam river
O...o...o... (yelling by the crowd)
CLEARING AWAY THE BEES
Not just any gold.
This gold pan is from Java.
Not just to clear away the bees.
But to make the spirits of the Rengas tree friendly.
TAKING THE HONEY
Cut the log, cut the log.
The logs are cut from the Ubah tree.
Don\'t have no honey.
Else I\'ll squeeze the girl\'s breast in the house.
BRINGING DOWN THE HONEY
Hanging around the roots of the Genali tree.
Don\'t be afraid to bring it to the grass.
Ask Grandmother Sengiang Tali to protect you.
We are bringing down some honey from the Kebaca tree\'s flower.
We\'ve fought against the bees.
We\'ve fought against the Ara tree\'s twisted bumps.
Go home spirits.
Let\'s go home all of us.
Once the honey hunter reaches the branch above a comb, a wooden knife is used to cut the comb. With a smouldering torch the bees are brushed away from the comb, after which they disappear as falling sparks down below. It is believed that an iron knife should not be used to avoid damaging the tree bark, after which the bees would not return. In some cases the brood comb is cut separately and thrown down. The honeycomb is then cut and put into the basket that is lowered to the ground. Traditionally these pieces are provided to please any bad spirits.
Honey collected from a single lalau tree may be hundreds of kilograms, depending on the number of nests. Reference (7) describes a crop of 140 kg from more than 20 nests on one lalau tree. In this case 16 people, owners and hunters shared the honey. Division of harvest seems to vary with every situation: agreements are probably made ad hoc prior to harvest.
Bee nests in lalau trees are said to contain more honey compared with tikung nests. However, losses due to spillage are higher with lalau. The actual average honey crop from a nest of a lalau tree is said to be much less than 10 kg because of the difficulty in harvesting the entire combs. As mentioned above, in the lake region honey harvest from lalau trees is of lesser importance than from tikung. In recent years the proportion of lalau honey has declined due to the decreasing number of lalau trees. Furthermore, tikung is more popular as it is an easier and safer way to crop honey.
Beeswax is also collected from the honeycombs. The combs are boiled after which the liquid is filtered. A nest with 6 kg of honey gives about 0.5 kg of wax. The prices are about the equivalent of US$1.2 for one kilogram of honey and US$1.4 for one kilogram of wax. The villagers immediately consume bee brood from a harvested comb.
Among the honey hunters that collect honey through the lalau and repak systems, many also collect honey using the tikung technique. Tikung is the name of a carved hardwood plank (approximately 0.8 - 2.5 m long by 25-40 cm wide); one side has a convex and the other side a concave shape. It is made of tembesu (Fagraea fragrans) or sometimes medang (Litsea sp). Carving and shaping a tikung with simple tools is a time-consuming process â€\" often taking a full day to complete just one board.
Such planks are attached to tree branches in the stunted swamp forests. The ends of the tikung planks are carved with notches (mainly rectangular, but sometimes V-shaped) to which a wooden peg is inserted, thus attaching it to a branch.
Tikung planks are positioned with a slope of about 30Â° with the upper part oriented towards the open sky. The concave side faces downward, so the upper convex side can facilitate rainwater runoff. Sometimes a pole is horizontally attached about 2 m below the tikung for the tikung owners to stand on while attaching and/or harvesting the tikung.
Tikung planks made of durable tembesu wood can last over two generations (40 years), and can still be used after enduring a forest fire.
Ownership of a tikung is indicated by an individual owner mark - usually a series of indentations at the side of the plank, recognised as the family mark. Each new generation (son) adds a new indent. This mark system is complicated, but well understood by all tikung holders in the same area.
In one day, 5-6 tikung planks can be positioned in the submerged forest, which is usually 2 m above the highest water level during rainy season. The trees preferred for hanging tikung planks are kamsia (Mesua hexapetala), masung (Syzygium claviflora) and empai/timba tawang (Crudia teysmannia).
The tikung harvest is always done after lalau harvest. Prior to the arrival of the swarms, some minor clearance of the tikung undergrowth and a small boat channel to the tikung may be made. The last blossom from the tahun (Carallia bracteata) gives the signal that honey is ready for harvest.
Honey collection from tikung resembles that of lalau. However, no songs are sung, as no spirits are believed to live in tikung trees. It is a collective practice. Harvest is done on moonless nights, usually from 1900 hours until 0400-0500 hours during which more than 20 tikung can be harvested. In discussions beekeepers said that harvesting in daylight would be very dangerous as bees sting fiercely. (However, in the village of Belibis we were told that in recent years a small group of tikung holders had started daytime collecting, using large quantities of smoke. They now seemed to favour daytime harvest as it is quicker due to better visibility. After harvest, the bees returned to the tikung for some days, after which they would leave.)
Tools for harvest from tikung are similar to that for lalau. At present a plastic or tin container is used instead of the traditional bark/rattan basket. A wooden knife is used to cut the comb. Tikung honey collectors believe that if the comb is cut with iron the bees will not return to the site next season. Also there is a fear of wounding each other in the dark when harvesting with a sharp iron knife. No protective clothing is used.
The nests are approached in small boats. A man reaches up close to the tikung to smoke away the curtain of bees. All bees either fall into the water and drown or crawl up branches and leaves, as it is too dark to navigate and fly. In order to ensure floating bees do not crawl into the boat, other men in the boat use paddles (or their hands) to move the water away from the boat. Usually the brood comb (sarang anak) is cut first and temporarily put on top of the tikung plank. This enables the honey collector to focus all his attention on the honeycomb, at the head of the tikung, which he then cuts and puts into the basket first.
Bees are not likely to return to the tikung the following day, and are believed to return to the mountain area. All tikung nests in the same vicinity must be harvested the same night to avoid some remaining nests being robbed by other bees.
Tikung owners are mainly Melayu men, however, at harvest nights women and children may join the activity as well. Traditionally the tikung owners within the same area formed groups, who abide by their own rules and regulations. These groups also put their tikung in the same area. Both that area and the groups are called priyau. In the past each priyau belonged to headmen, who gave his subordinates rights to place tikung. The priyau area was hereditary and sometimes subdivided to each one of the inheritants. The owner marks on the tikung reflect these interdependencies of tikung holders in the same priyau caused by inheritance.
At present rules applying to tikung owners in the same priyau include: a minimum number of tikung to be put up (for example 25 in Leboyan); obligation to put all tikung in one priyau only; a minimum distance between two tikung positions (for example 15 m in Leboyan); and to report the number and positions of tikung to the head of the priyau.
Reference (7) gives data from 1994 on the number of families, tikung holders and number of tikung per family for selected villages in five main tikung areas: 30% of the families owned tikung, one family having from 10-500 (in Leboyan the average was 81 per family). The number of tikung occupied by bee nests in that season was around 23%. Average honey yield per collected nest was around 6 kg. This gives a total production figure for all of the Danau Sentarum Lake area for that year to be between 20 and 25 tonnes (an average year).
To be continued: honey and beeswax marketing and techniques to improve tikung beekeeping.
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[Bees for Development Journal #59]