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GREAT NEWS FOR POLLINATORS
Concerns about the worldwide decline in numbers of pollinator species have now been acknowledged internationally at the highest level. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has recognised pollination as a key driver in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem function within its Agricultural Biological Diversity Programme.
The recent sixth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention approved the International Pollinator Initiative. The Plan of Action for the Initiative is a challenging one not only for pollination scientists but also for funding bodies and policy makers alike. This is a considerable achievement for the many pollination ecologists and organisations that have contributed to the development of this Initiative over recent years.
Representatives from 176 countries attended a meeting in the Netherlands in April 2002 at which 32 decisions were adopted. Decision Vl/5 reads:
"Para 8: adopts and decides to periodically review, as appropriate,
the Plan of Action for the International Initiative for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Pollinators on the basis of Annex II to the recommendation. Para 9: welcomes the leading role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in facilitating and coordinating this Initiative.
Para 10: welcomes the efforts to establish the African Pollinator Initiative in the framework of the IPI.
Para 11: invites Parties and other governments, and relevant organisations to contribute to the implementation of the IPI.
Para 12: invites Parties, other governments and funding organisations to provide adequate and timely support to the implementation of the Plan of Action, especially developing country Parties and economies in transition, in particular least developed countries and small island developing States. "
See the CBD website www.biodiv.org/decisions for more information.
The Plan of Action for the Initiative was prepared by FAO with the help of ten pollination scientists and aims to promote co-ordinated action worldwide to:
(a) Monitor pollinator decline, its causes and its impact on pollination services,
(b) Address the lack of taxonomic information on pollinators,
(c) Assess the economic value of pollination and the economic impact of decline of pollination services, and
(d) Promote the conservation and the restoration and sustainable use of pollinator diversity in agriculture and related ecosystems.
The plan has four elements: assessment, adaptive management, capacity building and mainstreaming. Each element has detailed for it an operational objective, rationale, activities, ways and means ands timing of the expected outputs: the latter are to be produced in several stages to 2010.
The IPI provides an opportunity to integrate and develop further the science and practice of pollination. It brings pollinators to the forefront of agricultural policy internationally, recognising pollination as an essential ecosystem service, upon which diversity among species, including agricultural crops and our own food supply depends. It also recognises that we can no longer assume that pollination is a free ecological service but must be nurtured by providing our pollinators with suitable habitats and environmental support within agro-ecosystems so that they thrive and continue to provide this service. Hopefully, the IPI will begin to reverse the alarming decline in pollinator diversity and populations witnessed over recent decades.
AFRICAN POLLINATOR INITIATIVE
Nairobi played host recently to an exciting and pioneering initiative. Members of the African Pollinator Initiative (API) held their inaugural meeting at The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology. Scientists, conservationists and other stakeholders from all over the continent met and brainstormed for five hectic days.
We explored the breadth of current research within Africa in the dynamic field of pollination ecology. Presentations from Kenya included work on fragmentation in Kakamega Forest, bees in arid and semi-arid lands, the biodiversity of insect visitors to bottle gourds, and many others. Some thought-provoking studies on the effects of fragmentation from South Africa were also presented. Other presentations were given by participants from Botswana and Ghana.
API is playing a leading role in developing and structuring a network of scientists, ecologists and other groups all centred on pollination.
Why pollination, some may ask? A first response would be that over 40% of the world's food crops rely on insect or animal pollinators. In addition, many terrestrial ecosystems are facing increasing disturbances due to human activities. Amongst the key processes threatened is pollination. No pollination means there are no seeds or fruit; the consequences are equally serious: extinction.
In response to the growing awareness amongst the public about the importance of pollinators, the API seeks to implement through an Action Plan, several tasks that will develop and sustain pollination as an essential ecosystem service. The economic importance of this 'free' service is evident in that farmers in the USA have to rent hives for pollination. Local bee and other insect populations have been decimated through careless use of pesticides and sterile monocultures.
Africa is blessed with a wealth of pollinator diversity. This is not to be taken for granted: both staple and cash crops require pollination. Avocado, citrus, cocoa, coffee, fig, mango and oil palm are just a few of the crops that benefit from animal pollination. In addition, many intriguing and marvellous relationships remain to be explored within African pollination ecology. The API having presented its goals at the Congress on Biological Diversity and at the Earth Summit is well to develop, support and increase awareness, research and appreciation of our long-ignored pollinators.
[Bees for Development Journal #65]