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By Pam Gregory, UK
If you decide to use top-bar technology, you want to get the best from it. I have said that it is easy to go wrong with top-bars and this can lead to frustration and disappointment. It is important to understand why you are doing things, and in these articles I have tried to point out why as well as how things are done.
So, you have made an appropriate hive, accepted as the design standard for your region, built from materials suitable for your needs. The top-bars are cut exactly and you have made a roof of some type. What happens next?
If you are not already an experienced beekeeper, you will need to do a bit of research. Talk to local beekeepers with practical experience. You need to know two important things:
Â· The time of year when the main honey flow occurs;
Â· The times of year when bees are swarming and when they migrate or abscond into your area.
I will come back to swarming, migrating and absconding in future articles. Briefly, swarming is where a strong colony divides to make several new ones, with part of the colony remaining in the nest place. Migrating and absconding are where all the bees in a colony leave the nest place. These are the times when top-bar hives are most likely to become colonised and they need to be ready in good order, clean and in the right place for the bees to make them their home. Otherwise you will miss the opportunity, perhaps for several months.
Choosing a good site is very important. Remember that bees maintain the brood nest temperature at around 35Â°C. This means in cool places (or in cold weather) they have to use energy to maintain the temperature. In hot places or times they have to use energy and water to prevent nest temperature rising. Also remember that beeswax combs become very soft and fragile at high temperatures and melt at 64Â°C. If combs collapse they make a mess and you may lose the queen, the honey or the whole colony.
This gives us some clues about what makes a good site for bees. Shade, forage availability (food), water and protection from severe weather - rather like our own homes really! However nice the house is, if there is no food or water in the vicinity the bees will not stay. (Would you?) Local beekeepers are the best source of information about flowering types and times. Agroforesters may also help in the selection of multipurpose trees or crops that benefit beekeepers especially when planning planting. Shade helps bees to maintain a comfortable temperature and protects the colony from the full force of the sun or rain. Shade also lets the beekeeper work comfortably with the bees. Research has shown that bees kept in the shade produce over 10% more honey. I have come to believe that temperature is one of the factors that affe~ts the manageability of tropical bees - the higher the temperature the more defensive they can be. After all, who wants to be disturbed at the hottest time of the day? Water can be supplied by the beekeeper in very dry times if necessary. It may be needed to prevent bees from being a nuisance to others by taking water from around water collection points or home taps.
This brings us on to other reasons for choosing a site. These are mainly for people's comfort, convenience and profit. Firstly, protection of people has to be considered. Bees can be a danger to the public so avoid putting them near frequently used places. Bees are best out of sight anyway because, sadly, they often attract the attention of thieves. However, it is helpful to the beekeeper if colonies can be conveniently situated to allow easy management and honey collection. A good-crop can be heavy to carry. Permission needs to be sought to use the site.
Making stands and installing the hive
There are two choices of installation for a top-bar hive. This will depend on the chosen apiary site and to some extent local practice, hence the value of talking to local beekeepers. Crucially, you need to know whether the honey badger or other large mammals are a problem for bees in your area. This is an important factor in determining what style of stand is best for your apiary.
The two main choices are hanging hives with strong wires from suitable supports, or to make a solid stand. As with any other beekeeping equipment, there will be different opinions about which style is best and traditional regional customs and variations in methods. The choice is your own and trying both ways allows you to choose which you prefer from personal experience - always the best form of learning.
Usually hives hung by wires are slung between two trees. If no suitable trees are available a stand that incorporates a . shady roof (preferably thatched) can be constructed. If you go for the solid stand it is important that it is at least one metre high from the ground. If the uprights are made from a type of timber that will take root when pushed into the ground to eventually become a growing plant there will be less likelihood of hive stands collapsing with termite damage. It is essential with this type of stand that ants are not allowed to climb up the legs to attack the colony. A barrier of oil or grease will prevent this from happening. There are several methods of doing this. Non living stands can have their feet placed in old tin cans containing oil (or even water - but this evaporates quickly). Living stands or those that are inserted into the ground need a grease band around the legs. Sometimes this is done by wrapping oily rags around the legs or by brushing waste sump oil from the local garage directly on to the legs of the stand. In each case the oil/grease needs checking and renewing on a regular basis to make sure it is still effectively keeping ants away from the colony.
Priming the top-bars with wax
The next job is to prime the top-bars with wax. You could think of this as the 'building instructions' for the bees, letting them know exactly where you want them to build their comb. As ever, there are different methods of priming the top-bars and this to some extent depends on the materials you have chosen for them. For carpenter cut top-bars which are 'V' shaped underneath, rubbing them hard with a softened block of beeswax may be sufficient. Softer strip material such as raffia palm top-bars should have a small slot cut into them that can be filled with melted beeswax - a beeswax candle makes an easy method of doing this. Another method is to make sheets of beeswax (using a wooden board) and then cutting them into starter strips before melting them on to the top-bars. The fresher the wax and the more generous the strip the more likely the bees are to take notice of the 'instructions'. Once honey is harvested, a strip of wax will already be in place on the top-bar and, provided there is no wax moth present, this will just need refreshing with a bit of beeswax melted from a candle.
When bees require a new home they send out scout bees to find good places and assess their value. The scout bees report back to the main group of bees about the places they found. They do this using the bee dance and eventually one place will be selected by the swarm as the best choice. This means that you have to encourage the scout bees to think your hive is the best home for the swarm. This is done by baiting the hives put out to be colonised. Beeswax is considered to be the best bait to attract swarms and the starter strips on the top-bars may be enough to do this. If not you will need to spread more beeswax around the hive. A hive that has had bees and harvested honey will always be more attractive than a new hive because of the lovely bee scents in it. Bees also find the scent of brood very attractive so a top-bar with a small section of comb containing brood (even though it is dead) will make excellent bait. However beware - if you try this you must ensure that there is no disease present in the brood. If it is left for more than a week or so it will attract wax moths and will be no longer attractive. If you try this you need to be able to visit the hive often during the colonising season.
Other baits to attract bees
Beekeepers in different places have their own baits (see for example the article from Nigeria on page 10 and BfDJ 33, 49, 59). Honey is not useful as a bait; bees just rob it out very quickly although a little could be smeared above the top-bars where the bees can smell it but not reach it. It does also mean that bees quickly know the location of the hive and scouts may come back to it later. Other things I have heard being successfully used for baiting hives are urine (not very hygienic but attractive due to the salts it contains), palm wine, fermented banana skins (both sweet and sticky) and cassava powder (a protein source). Basically, substances that bees like or need will attract them but be careful you do not also attract unwanted pests.
Active management of baited hives
Keeping a check on empty hives during the colonising season will pay dividends. In particular, make sure that some unwanted creature has not taken up residence in the hive and is repelling the bees. These could be ants, beetles, rats or spiders to name a few. Often, despite your best efforts the bees will still reject the place and it will not be clear why. Clean everything and try another place or store the hives safely until the next swarming period. A good way of disinfecting hive bodies is to scorch them over a fire or with a burning brand.
[Bees for Development Journal #70]