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The specialist international beekeeping organisation
Bee diversity across a tropical tract - Honeybees & people in India
Bees for Development Journal
A copy of this document is in the Bees for development library. Please contact us for access.
By Pratim RoyApiculture in India is diverse. From commercial beekeepers in Himachal Pradesh to local honey collectors in the hills and forests of Tamil Nadu to migratory beekeepers of Kanyakumari - they all practise some form of beekeeping. Tools techniques and associated traditions in honey bee rearing vary from region to region.There are several honey bee species which are exploited by communities. Given below is a brief description of honey bees across the Indian subcontinent.
Apis ceranaThese beekeepers are found across the breadth and range of the country. There are rural beekeepers in the high mountains of the Himalayas who keep log hives in house walls and rivetements. Each family typically owns half a dozen bee-logs and honey combs are only removed for local consumption.
Beekeeping with Apis cerana has been a growing industry in the central parts of the Bee Research & Training Institute and the Khadi & Village Industries Commission located at Poona & Mumbai respectively. The hills of Mahabaleshwar located in Maharashtra were the pioneering areas for beekeeping training and experiments.
Beekeeping is a traditional industry in West Bengal and some North Eastern states like Arunachal and Sikkim. In Karnataka & Tamil Nadu - there is a strong tradition of beekeeping with Apis cerana. Areas such as Coorg in Karnataka & Marthandam in Tamil Nadu are famous for their beekeeping culture. In Kerala especially in the rubber growing areas beekeeping is a regular activity and large quantity of honey from extra floral nectar is being produced.Apis dorsataThe giant rock bees are found in large numbers in the Himalayas. In higher reaches Apis laboriosa is found and in the lower areas of the Terrai foothills Apis dorsata is commonly found. Huge quantities of honey and bees wax are sold to wholesalers from towns in this region.In the central parts of the country honey yields ore substantial from Apis dorsata primarily due to good forest patches in and around sanctuaries & protected areas. Apis dorsata collectors are mainly tribals. Honey for health and Ayurvedic medicines has been a traditional industry in this region.The mangrove forests of the Sunderbans are an excellent habitat for Apis dorsata. The entire southern region is rich in Apis dorsata populations - contributing to a Iarge share of the total Indian honey market. In Andhra Pradesh farmers and honey hunters in the hills of the Eastern Ghats collect honey. Significant quantity of honey is passed on to traders. Intricate technologies and practices have been going on since a long time. Honey hunting is done on rocks and trees. Any accurate estimates of the number of honey collectors is not available.
Apis melliferaCommercial migratory beekeepers with Apis mellifera are steadily increasing in the northern hill state of Himachal the plains of Punjab Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. Rich bee farmers come in trucks bringing hundreds of colonies of Apis mellifera to apple orchards for pollination business in Himachal Pradesh. They move up the mountains during summer and come down to plains for placing the bee hives amongst eucalyptus and sun flower during winter. The introduction of Apis mellifera is going on at a good pace in West Bengal.
Honey ProductionAn interesting parallel can be drawn with North - South beekeeping. At both ends there are large beekeepers practising migratory beekeeping - one with Apis mellifera the other with Apis cerona. Both these sectors have developed strong beekeeping cottage industries and today have power to influence local authorities in areas of pollination policy and honey production."Honey production in India is only about 27 000 tonnes a year and a major portion of this is obtained from Apis dorsata though the share of apiary honey is increasing every year. At present it is estimated that about 9 000 tonnes of honey is produced from six hundred thousand colonies. Only about 20-25% of the bee flora is being exploited at present. " Mishra R.C The Hindu Survey of Indian Agriculture 1999.Importance of Diversity in Apiculture
Unlike many other countries where development in beekeeping has been unipolar in India due to the diversity in flora topography and activities of people beekeeping and management is diverse. In this country beekeeping has been adapted to various ecosystems socioeconomic profiles and habitat preferences. The need for modern science and technology is to understand this age old traditional system and provide useful inputs for relevant modern apiculture.Rural beekeeping has a role to play as not all can become commercial beekeepers. This rural sector needs to be enhanced by appropriate tools support systems and bring them to the forefront. It is this informal sector which is providing up to 70% of the honey & bees wax market in India. Apiculture needs to retain its diverse characteristics - better and more imaginative systems need to be designed for standardization quality control and marketing. Apiculture is an area with significant backward linkages and potential for a very high value high volume market.